Functional testing is performed during software development to ensure that the software functions correctly. In functional testing, testers identify the intended function of an application and execute a series of tests to ensure its compliance with the intended outcomes. Functional testing aims to ensure that a piece of software meets the customers’ specific functional requirements.
Methods of functional testing
Several methods and QA testing tools can be used to execute tests and gather data, regardless of what type of functional test is performed.
- Manual testing is usually used when tests are very complicated, when there are strict rules that require documentation, or when old systems’ cant be tested automatically.
- Exploratory testing is a form of manual testing wherein testers attempt to comprehend the functionality of the software and then select various tests to execute based on their comprehension. As exploratory testing is not predetermined, it typically reflects the actual user interaction with the software in practice.
- Automated testing can be employed in a variety of situations to accelerate the testing process and enhance the precision of the outcomes.
- Behavior-driven development (BDD) testing is a way to work together with testers, developers, product owners, and others to understand what needs to be done. The use of BDD testing is centered on the user and results in a high level of efficiency and effectiveness in user experience testing.
- Risk-based testing focuses on testing the most dangerous parts of the software and reduces risk by making sure all parts of the software are tested thoroughly. Testing based on potential hazards is often employed to allocate testing resources effectively.
Procedure for functional testing
1. Identify test objectives
The goal of functional testing is to determine the functionality that the software should have based on the requirements of the project. Testing aims to ensure that the software is performing as expected and gracefully handles glitches and unforeseen events.
2. Create a test scenario
It is advisable to compile a comprehensive list of all feasible (or at the very least the most significant) testing scenarios for a specific feature. The test scenarios demonstrate diverse methods of utilizing the feature. For example, a test of a payment system can have different currencies, handle card numbers that are invalid or expired, or send messages when transactions are successful.
3. Create test data
Based on the test scenario you identified, create test data that simulate normal usage conditions. The input of test data can be performed manually (using MS Excel spreadsheets or formulas) or automatically through the use of scripts or test tools that read and input data from databases, flat files, XML, or spreadsheets. The associated data that describes the expected outcome of the input data is also required for each input data set.
4. Run test cases
Try out the tests on your app and see how well they work compared to what you expected. The test fails if the actual output differs from expected output, and a defect is logged.
5. Conscious Detection, Tracking, and Correction of Errors
Once a glitch has been discovered, it should be documented in a symbiotic manner, accessible to the entire project team. It is recommended that you make the necessary modifications to your application, conduct a rerun of the test case to verify the resolution, and finally mark the bug as closed.
Challenges of functional testing
It can be difficult to manage functional testing, especially when there are many different technologies involved. The challenges associated with conducting functional tests include :
- Identifying and implementing detailed and comprehensive requirements for each software component.
- Identify potential functional gaps before planning tests.
- Developing a test plan to complete tests within specified time frames, utilizing appropriate tools, and ensuring optimal test coverage.
- Conducting tests and making sure that the test plans match the features being tested.
- Handling defects discovered by tests.
- Making sure that defects are reported in a complete, clear, and consistent way, and that they are given the right amount of importance and importance.
- Reporting the results of functional tests within a certain period of time and in ways that are understandable to all parties(stakeholders) involved.
- The gathering of metrics to evaluate the efficacy and standard of the testing procedure.